Compiled from the [non-Big Pharma/Big Vaccine/Big Medicine-controlled medical literature by Gary G. Kohls, MD - (6,376 Words)

 

“The sad truth is that is that there is a lot of money to be made (in vaccines);

“So-called (pro-vaccine, and therefore tainted) ‘scientific’ papers have provided cover to continue promoting vaccines; the lawyers have all had their say; the (Big PharmaBig Vaccine/Big Medicine) profit machine rolls along; and there is simply no line item on the balance sheet for ‘children harmed’.

“Good people are unwittingly part of this setup because they’ve all been led to (falsely) believe that vaccines are responsible for our freedom from childhood diseases, and

“The PR industry, undoubtedly paid by the pharmaceutical industry and probably from our tax dollars as well, is happy to promote the illusion that if not for vaccines, we’d all be dropping like flies. No one wants to rain on this parade.

“As Boyd Haley, PhD, who studied mercury, said of the mercury debate, ‘it’s not about the science because the science clearly says that mercury is a potent neurotoxin. It’s about something else.’”--From a blogger at: http://whyarethingsthisway.com/2014/03/08/example-1-pediatrician-belief-is-opposite-the-published-scientific-evidence-on-early-vaccine-safety/

 

“Aluminum is an experimentally demonstrated neurotoxin and the most commonly used vaccine adjuvantIn young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders.”-- Tomljenovic L andShaw CA

 

“The preponderance of the evidence indicates that mercury exposure is causal and/or contributory in ASD.’MR Geier, et al.

 

“Lead and mercury are considered as the main causes of autism(in Egypt).”HA Yassa

 

“The top ten environmental compounds suspected of causing autism and learning disabilities were listed and they included: lead, methyl-mercury, polychorinated biphenyls, organophosphate pesticides, organochlorine pesticides, endocrine disruptors, automotive exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds.”– MR Geier, MD

 

“By the time children are 4 to 6 years old, they will have received (ie, been intramuscularly injected with)a total of 126 antigenic compounds along with high amounts of aluminum (Al) adjuvants through routine vaccinations…(There is a distinct)correlation between increasing ASD rates and aluminium (Al) adjuvants in common use in paediatric vaccines.” – Tomljenovic L andShaw CA

 

“Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in the hair of autistic children are higher than controls.Environmental exposure to these toxic heavy metals, at key times in development, may play a causal role in autism.”-- AM Youssef, et al

 

GULF WAR SYNDROME AND ANTHRAX VACCINES

“The role of the anthrax vaccine (as a cause of Gulf War Illness) has come under increasing scrutiny. Among the vaccine's potentially toxic components are the adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and squalene…The findings suggest a possible role for the aluminum adjuvant in some neurological features associated with GWI and possibly an additional role for the combination of adjuvants.”– CA Shaw, et al

 

ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE AND VACCINES

“The toxic effects of aluminium may be an etiological factor (in Alzheimer’s Disease).”– GT Young

 

“There is now substantial evidence indicating that an accumulation of aluminum occurs in grey matter in diseases associated with Alzheimer neurofibrillary degeneration.” – DR McLachlan

 

“The results discussed here have broad implications for the role played by aluminium and other metals in (Alzheimer’s disease and other)neurodegenerative diseases, and suggest that long-term exposure to supra-physiological amounts of these metals should be avoided.”–A Campbell

 

THE AUTOIMMUNE SYNDROME INDUCED BY ADJUVANTS (ASIA)

“The Autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants (ASIA)(commonly causes)myalgias, arthralgias, chronic fatigue, neurological cognitive impairment, gastrointestinal symptoms, respiratory symptoms, skin manifestations and appearance of autoantibodies. Regardless of the aetiology of GWS, be it exposure to…vaccinations or the adjuvants in them, GWS fits well with the definition of ASIA. -- E Israeli

 

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Mol Neurobiol. 2017 Jul 22.

The Putative Role of Environmental Mercury in the Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of AutismSpectrum Disorders and Subtypes.

Morris G, Puri BK, Frye RE, Maes M.

Author information

Abstract

Exposure to organic forms of mercury has the theoretical capacity to generate a range of immune abnormalitiescoupled with chronic nitro-oxidative stress seen in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The paper discusses possible mechanisms explaining the neurotoxic effects of mercury and possible associations between mercury exposure and ASD subtypes. Environmental mercury is neurotoxic at doses well below the current reference levels considered to be safe, with evidence of neurotoxicity in children exposed to environmental sources including fish consumption and ethylmercury-containing vaccines. Possible neurotoxic mechanisms of mercury include direct effects on sulfhydryl groups, pericytes and cerebral endothelial cells, accumulation within astrocytes, microglial activation, induction of chronic oxidative stress, activation of immune-inflammatory pathways and impairment of mitochondrial functioning. (Epi-)genetic factors which may increase susceptibility to the toxic effects of mercury in ASD include the following: a greater propensity of males to the long-term neurotoxic effects of postnatal exposure and genetic polymorphisms in glutathione transferases and other glutathione-related genes and in selenoproteins. Furthermore, immune and inflammatory responses to immunisations with mercury-containing adjuvants are strongly influenced by polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region and by genes encoding effector proteins such as cytokines and pattern recognition receptors. Some epidemiological studies investigating a possible relationship between high environmental exposure to methylmercury and impaired neurodevelopment have reported a positive dose-dependent effect. Retrospective studies, on the other hand, reported no relationship between a range of ethylmercury-containing vaccines and chronic neuropathology or ASD. On the basis of these results, we would argue that more clinically relevant research is required to examine whether environmental mercury is associated with ASD or subtypes. Specific recommendations for future research are discussed.

 

 

J Trace Elem Med Biol.2016 Sep;37:8-24

The relationship between mercury andautism: A comprehensive review and discussion.

Kern JK, Geier DA, Sykes LK, Haley BE, Geier MR.

Author information

Abstract

The brain pathology in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) indicates marked and ongoing inflammatory reactivity with concomitant neuronal damage. These findings are suggestive of neuronal insult as a result of external factors, rather than some type of developmental mishap. Various xenobiotics have been suggested as possible causes of this pathology. In a recent review, the top ten environmental compounds suspected of causing autism and learning disabilities were listed and they included: lead, methyl-mercury, polychorinated biphenyls, organophosphate pesticides, organochlorine pesticides, endocrine disruptors, automotive exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and perfluorinated compounds.

This current review, however, will focus specifically on mercury exposure and ASD by conducting a comprehensive literature search of original studies in humans that examine the potential relationship between mercury and ASD, categorizing, summarizing, and discussing the published research that addresses this topic. This review found 91 studies that examine the potential relationship between mercury and ASD from 1999 to February 2016. Of these studies, the vast majority (74%) suggest that mercury is a risk factor for ASD, revealing both direct and indirect effects. The preponderance of the evidence indicates that mercury exposure is causal and/or contributory in ASD.

 

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Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2014 Nov;38(3):1016-24

Autism: a form of lead and mercury toxicity.

Yassa HA.

Author information

Abstract

Autismis a developmental disability characterized by severe deficits in social interaction and communication. The definite cause of autism is still unknown. The aim of this study is to find out the relation between exposure to Lead and/or mercury as heavy metals and autistic symptoms, dealing with the heavy metals with chelating agents can improve the autistic symptoms.

METHOD:

Blood and hair samples were obtained from 45 children from Upper Egypt with autism between the ages of 2 and 10 years and 45 children served as controls in the same age range, after taken an informed consent and fill a questionnaire to assess the risk factors. The samples were analyzed blindly for lead and mercury by using atomic absorption and ICP-MS. Data from the two groups were compared, then follow up of the autistic children after treatment with chelating agents were done.

RESULTS:

The results obtained showed significant difference among the two groups, there was high level of mercury and lead among those kids with autism. Significant decline in the blood level of lead and mercury with the use of DMSA as a chelating agent. In addition, there was decline in the autistic symptoms with the decrease in the lead and mercury level in blood.

CONCLUSION:

Lead and mercury are considered as the main causes of autism.Environmental exposure as well as defect in heavy metal metabolism is responsible for the high level of heavy metals. Detoxification by chelating agents had great role in improvement of those kids.

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Int J Environ Res Public Health.2012 Dec 6;9(12):4486-97.

Hair toxic metal concentrations (specifically mercury)and autism spectrum disorder severity in young children.

Geier DA, Kern JK, King PG, Sykes LK, Geier MR.

Author information

Abstract

Previous studies have found a higher body-burden of toxic metals, particularly mercury (Hg), among subjects diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in comparison to neurotypical controls.Moreover, Hg body-burden was associated with ASD severity. This cross-sectional study examined the potential correlation between hair toxic metal concentrations and ASD severity in a prospective cohort of participants diagnosed with moderate to severe ASD. The Institutional Review Board at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (Dallas, TX) approved the present study. Qualifying study participants (n = 18) were evaluated for ASD severity using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and quantitatively for arsenic, Hg, cadmium, lead, chromium, cobalt, nickel, aluminum, tin, uranium, and manganese using hair toxic element testing by Doctor's Data (a CLIA-approved laboratory). CARS scoring and hair toxic element testing were blinded to one another. Increasing hair Hg concentrations significantly correlated with increased ASD severity. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between any other of the hair toxic metals examined and ASD severity. This study helps to provide additional mechanistic support for Hg in the etiology of ASD severity, and is supported by an increasing number of recent critical reviews that provide biological plausibility for the role of Hg exposure in the pathogenesis of ASDs.

 

 

Behav Neurol. 2015;2015:545674.

Assessment of Hair Aluminum, Lead, and Mercury in a Sample of Autistic Egyptian Children: Environmental Risk Factors of Heavy Metals in Autism.

Mohamed Fel B1, Zaky EA1, El-Sayed AB2, Elhossieny RM1, Zahra SS1, Salah Eldin W3, Youssef WY1, Khaled RA1, Youssef AM1.

Author information

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

The etiological factors involved in the etiology of autism remain elusive and controversial, but both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated. The aim of this study was to assess the levels and possible environmental risk factors and sources of exposure to mercury, lead, and aluminum in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared to their matched controls.

METHODS:

One hundred ASD children were studied in comparison to 100 controls. All participants were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of mercury, lead, and aluminum through hair analysis which reflects past exposure.

RESULTS:

The mean levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in hair of the autistic patients were significantly higher than controls.Mercury, lead, and aluminum levels were positively correlated with maternal fish consumptions, living nearby gasoline stations, and the usage of aluminum pans, respectively.

CONCLUSION:

Levels of mercury, lead, and aluminum in the hair of autistic children are higher than controls.Environmental exposure to these toxic heavy metals, at key times in development, may play a causal role in autism.

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Curr Opin Immunol.2014 Jun;28:1-5

Immunomodulatory Properties of the Vaccine Adjuvant Alum

Oleszycka E;Lavelle EC

Advanced Materials and BioEngineering Research (AMBER), Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland; Centre for Research on Adaptive Nanostructures and Nanodevices (CRANN), Trinity College, Dublin 2, Ireland.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24463269

Abstract

Alum, the most common adjuvant in non-living vaccines, has a record of successful use in human vaccination where it promotes antibody-mediated protective immunity. However, alum is a poor inducer of cellular immune responses. The mechanism underlying the selective enhancement of humoral immunity is still not well understood. Here, to provide an insight into its mode of action, recent findings regarding innate immune responses induced by alum and their impact on adaptive immunity are described, with a particular emphasis on early recognition of alum, including NLRP3 and PI3 kinase activation,adjuvant-induced cell death and the release of endogenous danger signals. Expanding our knowledge of alum-induced immunomodulation will greatly enhance our capacity to rationally develop novel adjuvants with specific properties.

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J Med Microbiol.2012 Jul;61(Pt 7):927-34

Alum Adjuvant: Some of the Tricks of the Oldest Adjuvant

Kool M,Fierens K,Lambrecht BN

Laboratory of Immunoregulation and Mucosal Immunology, University Hospital Ghent, Ghent, Belgium

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22174375

Abstract

Alum has been the most widely used adjuvant for over 80 years. Although there have been searches for alternative adjuvants, aluminium-containing adjuvants will continue to be used for many years due to their good track record of safety, low cost and adjuvanticity with a variety of antigens. For infections that can be prevented by induction of serum antibodies, aluminium-containing adjuvants formulated under optimal conditions are the adjuvants of choice. There are also some limitations of aluminium-containing adjuvants, which include local reactions, augmentation of IgE antibody responses, ineffectiveness for some antigens and inability to augment cell-mediated immune responses, especially cytotoxic T-cell responses. In this review, we describe the current knowledge regarding the mechanisms (both cellular and molecular) by which alum employs its adjuvant effect, although the final mechanism is not yet well-defined. Furthermore, we discuss how alum's adjuvanticity could be improved.

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Curr Med Chem.2011;18(17):2630-7

Aluminum Vaccine Adjuvants: Are they Safe?

L. Tomljenovic, and C.A. Shaw

Neural Dynamics Research Group, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, the Departments of Ophthalmology, Visual Sciences and Experimental Medicine, and the Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of British Columbia, 828 W. 10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L8, Canada

Full journal article available at: http://www.meerwetenoverfreek.nl/images/stories/Tomljenovic_Shaw-CMC-published.pdf

Abstract

Aluminum is an experimentally demonstrated neurotoxin and the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant. Despite almost 90 years of widespread use of aluminum adjuvants, medical science’s understanding about their mechanisms of action is still remarkably poor. There is also a concerning scarcity of data on toxicology and pharmacokinetics of these compounds. In spite of this, the notion that aluminum in vaccines is safe appears to be widely accepted.

Experimental research, however, clearly shows that aluminum adjuvants have a potential to induce serious immunological disorders in humans. In particular, aluminum in adjuvant form carries a risk for autoimmunity, long-term brain inflammation and associated neurological complications and may thus have profound and widespread adverse health consequences.

In our opinion, the possibility that vaccine benefits may have been overrated and the risk of potential adverse effects underestimated, has not been rigorously evaluated in the medical and scientific community. We hope that the present paper will provide a framework for a much needed and long overdue assessment of this highly contentious medical issue.

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J Inorg Biochem.2011 Nov;105(11):1489-99

Do Aluminum Vaccine Adjuvants Contribute to the Rising Prevalence of Autism?

Tomljenovic L,Shaw CA.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22099159

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are serious multisystem developmental disorders and an urgent global public health concern.

Dysfunctional immunity and impaired brain function are core deficits in ASD.

Aluminum (Al), the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant, is a demonstrated neurotoxin and a strong immune stimulator.Hence, adjuvant Al has the potential to induce neuroimmune disorders. When assessing adjuvant toxicity in children, two key points ought to be considered:

(1) Children should not be viewed as "small adults" as their unique physiology makes them much more vulnerable to toxic insults; and

(2) If exposure to Al from only a few vaccines can lead to cognitive impairment and autoimmunity in adults, is it unreasonable to question whether the current pediatric schedules, often containing Al-adjuvanted vaccines, are safe for children?

By applying Hill's criteria for establishing causality between exposure and outcome we investigated whether exposure to Al from vaccines could be contributing to the rise in ASD prevalence in the Western world.

Our results show that:

(1) Children from countries with the highest ASD prevalence appear to have the highest exposure to Al from vaccines;

(2) The increase in exposure to Al adjuvants significantly correlates with the increase in ASD prevalence in the United States observed over the last two decades (Pearson r=0.92, p<0.0001); and

(3) A significant correlation exists between the amounts of Al administered to pre-school children and the current prevalence of ASD in seven Western countries, particularly at 3-4 months of age (Pearson r=0.89-0.94, p=0.0018-0.0248).

The application of the Hill's criteria to these data indicates that the correlation between Al in vaccines and ASD may be causal.

Because children represent a fraction of the population most at risk for complications following exposure to Al, a more rigorous evaluation of Al adjuvant safety seems warranted.

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Immunol Res. 2013 Jul;56(2-3):304-16

Aluminum in the Central Nervous System (CNS): Toxicity in Humans and Animals, Vaccine Adjuvants, and Autoimmunity

Shaw CA, Tomljenovic L

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23609067

Abstract

We have examined the neurotoxicity of aluminum in humans and animals under various conditions, following different routes of administration, and provide an overview of the various associated disease states.

The literature demonstrates clearly negative impacts of aluminum on the nervous system across the age span. In adults, aluminum exposure can lead to apparently age-related neurological deficits resembling Alzheimer's and has been linked to this disease and to the Guamanian variant, ALS-PDC. Similar outcomes have been found in animal models.

In addition, injection of aluminum adjuvants in an attempt to model Gulf War syndrome and associated neurological deficits leads to an ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) phenotype in young male mice.

In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders.

Many of the features of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity may arise, in part, from autoimmune reactions, as part of the ASIA syndrome (the Autoimmune/auto-inflammatory Syndrome, Induced by Adjuvants in vaccines).

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Lupus.2012 Feb;21(2):223-30.

Mechanisms of Aluminum Adjuvant Toxicity and Autoimmunity in Pediatric Populations

Tomljenovic L,Shaw CA

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22235057

Abstract

Immune challenges during early development, including those vaccine-induced, can lead to permanent detrimental alterations of the brain and immune function.Experimental evidence also shows that simultaneous administration of as little as two to three immune adjuvants can overcome genetic resistance to autoimmunity.

In some developed countries, by the time children are 4 to 6 years old, they will have received (ie, been intramuscularly injected with)a total of 126 antigenic compounds along with high amounts of aluminum (Al) adjuvants through routine vaccinations.

According to the US Food and Drug Administration, safety assessments for vaccines have often not included appropriate toxicity studies because vaccines have not been viewed as inherently toxic.

Taken together, these observations raise plausible concerns about the overall safety of current childhood vaccination programs.When assessing adjuvant toxicity in children, several key points ought to be considered:

(1) Infants and children should not be viewed as "small adults" with regard to toxicological risk as their unique physiology makes them much more vulnerable to toxic insults;

(2) In adult humans aluminum vaccine adjuvants have been linked to a variety of serious autoimmune and inflammatory conditions (i.e., ASIA = Autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants), yet children are regularly exposed to much higher amounts of Al from vaccines than adults;

(3) It is often assumed that peripheral immune responses do not affect brain function. However, it is now clearly established that there is a bidirectional neuro-immune cross-talk that plays crucial roles in immune-regulation as well as brain function. In turn, perturbations of the neuro-immune axis have been demonstrated in many autoimmune diseases encompassed in "ASIA" and are thought to be driven by a hyperactive immune response; and

(4) The same components of the neuro-immune axis that play key roles in brain development and immune function are heavily targeted by Al adjuvants.

In summary, research evidence shows that increasing concerns about current vaccination practices may indeed be warranted.

Because children may be most at risk of vaccine-induced complications, a rigorous evaluation of the vaccine-related adverse health impacts in the pediatric population is urgently needed.

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Immunotherapy. 2014;6(10):1055-71

Are There Negative CNS Impacts of Aluminum Adjuvants used in Vaccines and Immunotherapy?

Shaw CA, Li D, Tomljenovic L

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25428645

Abstract

In spite of a common view that aluminum (Al) salts are inert and therefore harmless as vaccine adjuvants or in immunotherapy, the reality is quite different.

In the following article we briefly review the literature on Al neurotoxicity and the use of Al salts as vaccine adjuvants and consider not only direct toxic actions on the nervous system, but also the potential impact for triggering autoimmunity.

Autoimmune and inflammatory responses affecting the CNS appear to underlie some forms of neurological disease, including developmental disorders.Al has been demonstrated to impact the CNS at every level, including by changing gene expression.

These outcomes should raise concerns about the increasing use of Al salts as vaccine adjuvantsand for the application as more general immune stimulants.

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J Toxicol.2014;2014:491316

Aluminum-induced Entropy in Biological Systems: Implications for Neurological Disease

Shaw CA  et al

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25349607

Abstract

Over the last 200 years, mining, smelting, and refining of aluminum (Al) in various forms have increasingly exposed living species to this naturally abundant metal. Because of its prevalence in the earth's crust, prior to its recent uses it was regarded as inert and therefore harmless. However, Aluminum is invariably toxic to living systems and has no known beneficial role in any biological systems.

Humans are increasingly exposed to Al from food, water, medicinals, vaccines, and cosmetics, as well as from industrial occupational exposure.

Al disrupts biological self-ordering, energy transduction, and signaling systems, thus increasing biosemiotic entropy. Beginning with the biophysics of water, disruption progresses through the macromolecules that are crucial to living processes (DNAs, RNAs, proteoglycans, and proteins). It injures cells, circuits, and subsystems and can cause catastrophic failures ending in death.

Al forms toxic complexes with other elements, such as fluorine, and interacts negatively with mercury, lead, and glyphosate (Monsanto Corporation’s Round-Up).

Al negatively impacts the central nervous system in all species that have been studied, including humans.Because of the global impacts of Al on water dynamics and biosemiotic systems, CNS disorders in humans are sensitive indicators of the Al toxicants to which we are being exposed.

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J Inorg Biochem.2013 Nov;128:237-44.

Administration of Aluminium to Neonatal Mice in Vaccine-relevant Amounts is Associated with Adverse Long Term Neurological Outcomes

Shaw CA,Li Y,Tomljenovic L

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23932735

Abstract

Our previous ecological studies of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has demonstrated a correlation between increasing ASD rates and aluminium (Al) adjuvants in common use in paediatric vaccines in several Western countries. The correlation between ASD rate and Al adjuvant amounts appears to be dose-dependent and satisfies 8 of 9 Hill criteria for causality. We have now sought to provide an animal model to explore potential behavioural phenotypes and central nervous system (CNS) alterations using subcutaneous. injections of Al hydroxide in early postnatal CD-1 mice of both sexes.

Injections of a "high" and "low" Al adjuvant levels were designed to correlate to either the U.S. or Scandinavian paediatric vaccine schedules vs. control saline-injected mice. Both male and female mice in the "high Al" group showed significant weight gains following treatment up to sacrifice at 6 months of age. Male mice in the "high Al" group showed significant changes in light-dark box tests and in various measures of behaviour in an open field. Female mice showed significant changes in the light-dark box at both doses, but no significant changes in open field behaviours. These current data implicate Al injected in early postnatal life in some CNS alterations that may be relevant for a better understanding of the aetiology of ASD.

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Neuromolecular Med.2007;9(1):83-100.

Aluminum Adjuvant Linked to Gulf War Illness Induces Motor Neuron Death in Mice

Petrik MS, Wong MC, Tabata RC, Garry RF, Shaw, CA

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17114826

Abstract

Gulf War illness (GWI) affects a significant percentage of veterans of the 1991 conflict, but its origin remains unknown. Associated with some cases of GWI are increased incidences of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurological disorders.Whereas many environmental factors have been linked to GWI, the role of the anthrax vaccine has come under increasing scrutiny. Among the vaccine's potentially toxic components are the adjuvants aluminum hydroxide and squalene.

To examine whether these compounds might contribute to neuronal deficits associated with GWI, an animal model for examining the potential neurological impact of aluminum hydroxide, squalene, or aluminum hydroxide combined with squalene was developed. Young, male colony CD-1 mice were injected with the adjuvants at doses equivalent to those given to US military service personnel. All mice were subjected to a battery of motor and cognitive-behavioral tests over a 6-mo period post injections.

Following sacrifice, central nervous system tissues were examined using immunohistochemistry for evidence of inflammation and cell death.

Behavioral testing showed motor deficits in the aluminum treatment group that expressed as a progressive decrease in strength measured by the wire-mesh hang test (final deficit at 24 weeks; about 50%).

Significant cognitive deficits in water-maze learning were observed in the combined aluminum and squalene group(4.3 errors per trial) compared with the controls (0.2 errors per trial) after 20 weeks.

Apoptotic neurons were identified in aluminum-injected animals that showed significantly increased activated caspase-3 labeling in lumbar spinal cord (255%) and primary motor cortex (192%) compared with the controls.

Aluminum-treated groups also showed significant motor neuron loss (35%) and increased numbers of astrocytes (350%) in the lumbar spinal cord.

The findings suggest a possible role for the aluminum adjuvant in some neurological features associated with GWI and possibly an additional role for the combination of adjuvants.

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Neurobiol Aging.1986 Nov-Dec;7(6):525-32

Aluminum and Alzheimer's Disease

McLachlan DR

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3550508

Abstract

There is now substantial evidence indicating that an accumulation of aluminum occurs in grey matter in diseases associated with Alzheimer neurofibrillary degeneration.Four principle sites of aluminum accumulation have been identified in Alzheimer's disease: DNA containing structures of the nucleus, the protein moieties of neurofibrillary tangles, the amyloid cores of senile plaques and cerebral ferritin. Consideration of the extensive information now available on the toxic effects of aluminum in these four loci strengthens the hypothesis that aluminum could be important in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative process.

The evidence, however, does not support an etiological role for aluminum in Alzheimer's disease. The primary pathogenic events responsible for Alzheimer's disease are presumed to have affected the genetically determined barriers to aluminum resulting in increased amounts of this toxic element to vulnerable target sites.

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Nephrol Dial Transplant.2002;17 Suppl 2:17-20

The Potential role of Aluminium in Alzheimer's Disease

Campbell A

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11904353

Abstract

Aluminium is a trivalent cation that does not undergo redox changes. It has, nonetheless, been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders that have been associated with an increase in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The exact mechanism of aluminium toxicity is not known. However, accumulating evidence suggests that the metal can potentiate oxidative and inflammatory events, leading to tissue damage. A review of the epidemiological and clinical evidence linking aluminium to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is presented.

The article discusses the role of aluminium in two mechanisms that have been linked to neurodegenerative disorders, including AD. Studies are summarized that describe how aluminium can potentiate iron-induced oxidative events. Involvement of aluminium in inflammatory responses, mediated by interleukins and other inflammatory cytokines, is also discussed. Although a direct relationship between aluminium and AD has not been clearly demonstrated, a detailed mechanistic basis for the hypothesis that aluminium may exacerbate events associated with AD is clearly emerging. The results discussed here have broad implications for the role played by aluminium and other metals in neurodegenerative diseases, and suggest that long-term exposure to supra-physiological amounts these metals should be avoided.

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Med Hypotheses.1992 May;38(1):1-4

Alzheimer's Disease and Metal-containing Glia

Young JK

Department of Anatomy, Howard University, Washington DC 20059

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1614354

Abstract

Considerable evidence suggests that in Alzheimer's disease, olfactory bulb damage may be a primary factor, causing degeneration and neurofibrillary tangles primarily in neurons connected with this brain area. Also, deposits of amyloid may involve an improper regulation of the cleavage of a precursor protein by glia. Finally, toxic effects of aluminium may be an etiological factor. This review proposes that all these seemingly unrelated aspects of Alzheimer's disease could be related to a disturbed function of metal-containing glia. Such a disturbance, initiated by or aggravating toxic effects of aluminium, may underlie initial damage in the olfactory bulb and/or other brain areas with a weakened blood-brain barrier and may be responsible for amyloid deposition.

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J Autoimmun201136:4–8

The Spectrum of ASIA: “Autoimmune (Auto-inflammatory) Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants”

Y Shoenfeldet al

The Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer 52621, Israel.

http://lup.sagepub.com/content/21/2/118.short?rss=1&ssource=mfr

Abstract

Physicians are often puzzled by enigmatic medical conditions or the abrupt appearance of an immune-medi

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