BANGKOK, Thailand -- An American Buddhist nun said the U.S. Embassy
rescued her from Thai men who wanted to kidnap her, but they later
allegedly burned down her temple dormitory because she intentionally
disobeys Thai Buddhist clergy by supporting women to become nuns.
   Leaura M. Naomi's confrontation earlier this year is the most vivid
example of a wider revolution by women across Southeast Asia demanding
equality to allow female ordinations within Theravada Buddhism.
   In Theravada -- the oldest and more conservative of Buddhism's two
main branches -- a male monk's ancient Pali-language title is
   A nun is a "bhikkhuni".
   About 95 percent of Thailand's population are Theravada Buddhists.
   Theravada also exists in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, India
and Indonesia.
   In Thailand many, if not most, families arrange for at least one
young adult son to live in a temple -- perhaps for several days or a
season -- to be ordained as a novice or monk.
   Ordination bestows spiritual "merit" which is often a major reason
why the ceremony is coveted.
   A son's priceless merit can later be shared to elevate his parents
to heaven when they die, according to traditional Thai beliefs,
sometimes expressed as a parent symbolically "holding onto his robe
while dying."
   If a married man is ordained, his wife can share his merit if he
remains devout after leaving the temple.
   A 1928 proclamation by Thailand's all-male Buddhist Sangha Supreme
Council forbids female ordination, frustrating many daughters and
their parents because no equivalent merit can be earned by women.
   Historians say bhikkhunis flourished for 1,000 years in India and
Sri Lanka but Islam and war caused them to almost disappear.
   "My name is Bhikkhuni Doctor Lee. We don't use last names," Ms.
Naomi said in an interview.
   The American was wrapped in a robe styled differently but the same
saffron color as a Thai monk's robe.
   More than 2,500 years ago, "in the time of the Buddha, we had
bhikkhunis and they wore similar attire," said Ms. Naomi, 56, who also
has a shaven head in keeping with Buddhist tradition.
   "I built a temple three times in Thailand. And we got shut down two
times. And the third time we were arsoned."
   Ms. Naomi said a gang of Thai men are still threatening her and her
"temple" in Rayong, a tourist-friendly beach town 90 miles from
   Her woes began in 2016 with "eight men, drunken and shouting, 'We
want the bhikkhuni out of the village. We want the American out of the
village. If you don't get out of the village, we're going to burn your
temple down'," she said.
   "In Thailand, there have been four kidnapping attempts on my life.
   "But thank goodness for the American Embassy.  Mr. Andrew at the
American Embassy, the special officer, he saved my life," after she
telephoned him during her latest crisis earlier this year.
   The gang was "around the temple. It was day time. And Mr. Andrew
said, 'Lock the windows. Lock the doors. Turn off the sound on the
telephone.' And he got the police to come in."
   When asked to confirm the incident, the U.S. Embassy's spokeswoman
Melissa Sweeney replied:
   "When a U.S. citizen requires assistance while abroad, the embassy
or consulate provides all possible consular assistance. Due to privacy
considerations, we are unable to comment further on this case."
   About 10 days after that confrontation, some men set fire to the
women's dormitory where Ms. Naomi lived with four Thai women, she
   She continues to run her International Women's Meditation Center
which she describes as a "temple."
   Ms. Naomi, born into a Christian family in Yonkers, New York, said
she received a PhD. in geography at Colorado University and taught at
Central Michigan and Eastern Michigan universities.
   She ordained as a bhikkhuni in Colorado 25 years ago and came to
Thailand in 2000.
   "I read that they have Theravada Buddhism in Thailand but not the
bhikkhuni thing."
   She decided to "introduce this new cultural element, then it could
perhaps take off."
   More than 300,000 monks and novices live in Thailand's 30,000 temples.
   There are hundreds of unrecognized Thai bhikkhunis but Ms. Naomi is
the only American Buddhist nun residing in Thailand.
   Another American known as Venerable Pannavati, who says she's the
world's only black Buddhist nun, visits Thailand to help Ms. Naomi
ordain nuns.
   Ms. Pannavati, 68, a thrice-married mother, is co-founder and
Buddhist abbot of Heartwood Refuge, an interfaith center in
Hendersonville, North Carolina.
   Born a Baptist in Washington DC, she went to First Rising Mount Zion church.
   Ms. Pannavati later became a Pentecostal Holy Roller -- speaking in
tongues -- and then a charismatic Christian before embracing Buddhism.
   Ms. Pannavati first came to Thailand in 2008, invited by Ms. Naomi.
   "She was looking for [foreign] nuns who were not afraid to ordain
[Thai women]," Ms. Pannavati said in an interview while visiting
   "I helped Dr. Lee ordain. And it was good. We did that for several years."
   Ms. Pannavati would "fly in, arrange an ordination, and fly out."
   Venerable Dhammananda, a Thai, became a nun after being ordained in
2003 in Sri Lanka where the Theravada tradition was revived.
   Formerly named Dr. Chatsumarn Kabilsingh when she was a Buddhist
philosophy lecturer at Bangkok's Thammasat University, she divorced
her husband, became celibate and explained her religious decisions to
her children.
   Ms. Dhammananda now heads an unrecognized Theravada temple near Bangkok.
   Her Thai mother established the temple in 1971 after ordaining in
Taiwan which allows, similar to China, Mahayana female ordination.
   Ms. Dhammananda's Thai grandmother also ordained overseas.
   "I have given ordination to 700 women. They are working women, so
after nine days [at her temple] they return to their life," Ms.
Dhammananda said during a recent news conference at the Foreign
Correspondents' Club of Thailand.
   She is also active elsewhere in Asia.
   "In Tibetan tradition, they have only female novices. They don't
have fully ordained [nuns]. They are also struggling. I have been
trying to work with His Holiness [the Dalai Lama] since 1980, but it
has not been successful.
   "He said he would wait to see if some senior [Tibetan] monks would
consider joining him or not.  That will never happen," Ms. Dhammananda
   "I just came back from Myanmar. I tried to push for fully ordained
female monks in Myanmar. Not possible."
   She said a Myanmar woman who ordained in 2003 in Sri Lanka returned
to her country -- also known as Burma -- but was jailed for 76 days.
   Upon release, she settled in America, Ms. Dhammananda said.
   "Laos and Cambodia are following after Thailand because many of the
monks come here for education," and forbid female ordination.
   Ms. Dhammananda and others recently established a Network of Asian
Theravada Bhikkhunis to push for equality.
   Male-to-female transgender women, who want to be ordained as nuns,
present a special case, she said.
   Recently, a "woman came to me. And if she did not tell me she was a
he before, I would not know. He had breasts just like women. And he
had his penis removed.
   "Supposing if this person asked me for ordination as
bhikkhuni...should I or should I not give him ordination?"
   One respected senior Thai monk told Ms. Dhammananda, "'If she has
the physical form of a woman,' I should be able to give her