(I Urge that Attention be Paid to the Increased Adverse Pathophysiological Effects and Lethality of “COVID-19” Hospital Treatment Centers in 5G-Saturated Urban Centers like Wuhan, New York City, Milan, Italy, etc) (2172 words)



From Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology, 22 Apr 2009, 16(2-3):157-177

DOI: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2009.03.004 PMID: 19398310 


Disturbance of the Immune System by Electromagnetic Fields - A Potentially Underlying Cause for Cellular Damage and Tissue Repair Reduction Which Could Lead to Disease and Impairment


By Olle Johansson – April 22, 2009

Author information



A number of papers dealing with the effects of modern, man-made electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on the immune system are summarized in the present review.


EMFs disturb immune function through stimulation of various allergic and inflammatory responses, as well as effects on tissue repair processes.


Such disturbances increase the risks for various diseases, including cancer. These and the EMF effects on other biological processes (e.g. DNA damage, neurological effects, etc.) are now widely reported to occur at exposure levels significantly below most current national and international safety limits.


Obviously, biologically-based exposure standards are needed to prevent disruption of normal body processes and potential adverse health effects of chronic exposure. 


Based on this review, as well as the reviews in the recent Bioinitiative Report [] [C.F. Blackman, et al: The Bioinitiative Report-A Rationale for a Biologically-based Public Exposure Standard for Electromagnetic Fields (ELF and RF), 2007)], it must be concluded that the existing public safety limits are inadequate to protect public health, and that new public safety limits, as well as limits on further deployment of untested technologies, are warranted.



“I have no doubt in my mind that, at the present time, the greatest polluting element in the earth’s environment is the proliferation of electromagnetic fields (EMFs).” – Dr Robert O. Becker, surgeon and author of The Body Electric


“For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their EMF exposure as much as possible.” -- Sarika Singh and Neeru Kapoor


Review Article | Open Access


Advances in BiologyVolume 2014 - ID 198609 |


Health Implications of Electromagnetic Fields, Mechanisms of Action, and Research Needs

By Sarika Singh and Neeru Kapoor – Published September 23, 2014 (article abridged by Duty to Warn editor = 1880 words) (Original article = 13,896 words)


Electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been implicated to influence a range of bodily functions. Given their ubiquitous nature, widespread applications, and capability to produce deleterious effects, conclusive investigations of the health risks are critical. Accordingly, this paper has been constructed to weigh the bioeffects, possible biointeraction mechanisms, and research areas in bioelectromagnetics seeking immediate attention.

The several gaps in the existing knowledge do not permit one to reach a concrete conclusion but possibility for harmful effects cannot be underestimated in absence of consistent findings and causal mechanisms.

Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. 

Hence, the need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism.

For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their EMF exposure as much as possible.

1. Introduction

The terrestrial electromagnetic environment has been and is being rapidly altered by humans as a result of technological advancements. This was well recognised very early in the seventies by Dr. Robert O. Becker (twice nominated for Nobel Prize) who said “I have no doubt in my mind that, at the present time, the greatest polluting element in the earth’s environment is the proliferation of electromagnetic fields (EMFs).”


2. Health Effects of Electromagnetic Fields

2.1. Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity (EHS)

EHS is a recent phenomenon of occurrence of subjective signs and symptoms in some sensitive individuals with EMF experience from varied electronic sources. Despite lower levels of exposures, symptoms of ill health have been observed among the subjects [34]. According to WHO [43], about 1–3% of the world’s population are affected by this EHS syndrome. The exposure to EMFs especially at lower levels and for long duration was originally reported among the East European radar workers and linked with a number of subjective and objective (skin and mucosa-related) symptoms. Sufferers often label EHS as loner’s disease because of the consequent social isolation [9]. Epidemiological investigations have been conducted on people complaining about unpleasant symptoms (Table 2). Complainants have related their symptoms most frequently to exposure to MP base stations (74%) followed by MPs (36%), cordless phones (29%), and power lines (27%) [36].


…individuals with EHS need to be supported by the family, society, and the government to lead a normal and respectable life.

2.2. Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects

DNA alteration is considered to instigate carcinogenesis [8, 58] and change in DNA or micronuclei (MN) generation is an accepted indication for genotoxicity [59]. 


…for now, precautions should be taken to limit the exposures as much as possible.

2.3. EMF and Cancer

Epidemiological investigations have focused attention towards association between ELF-EMF exposures and incidence of tumours [6, 40, 41, 77]. Investigations concerning military personnel also indicate the development of tumours [17]. Amongst all cancer endpoints weighed in epidemiological investigations, childhood leukemia in connection to postnatal exposure exceeding 0.4 μT gets the maximum support for an association [54].


…accumulating evidence suggests that they could act as cocarcinogens if given in combination with known genotoxic or nongenotoxic carcinogens showing their synergistic effect. Additionally, the DNA damaging potential of EMFs by free radical generation and also by increasing their lifespan coupled with alterations in DNA repair mechanisms is of concern. However, considering the information in hand on carcinogenesis, cocarcinogenesis with tangling results in the absence of established mechanisms, strict limitations to exposures are suggested till the time any firm conclusion is reached.

2.4. Effects on Endocrine System

Among the several hormones secreted by the body, melatonin gained the focus of most of the EMF investigations. Melatonin, essentially a tryptophan derivative produced chiefly from the pineal gland has been documented to be affected by EMF in animals [25, 84, 85] as well as in humans [21, 22, 24].


In light of the above evidences, it seems that EMF acts as a stressor and has the potential to affect the various endocrine secretions posing a significant health threat.

2.5. Effects on Cardiovascular System

An experiment on human head exposure to 37 Hz EMF at a flux density of 80 μT suggested that EMF could alter nociception and may be associated with cardiovascular abnormalities [111]. <<SNIP>>

In this connection, EMF effect on newborns and patients with electronic implants or on life supporting systems needs immediate attention.

2.6. Effects on Nervous System

The inability of neuronal cells to divide and repair once damaged makes the organism susceptible to develop several neurodegenerative diseases. The occurrence of Parkinson’s disease, and so forth, has been linked to cumulative DNA damage in brain tissues [60]. The increased prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease reported among workers of textile factories exposed to ELF-MFs [129] could be one such instance. Ahlbom and coworkers [54] in their review also indicated towards a possible relation between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and occupational ELF-EMF exposure.


EMRs from MP base stations may expose residents to risk of developing neuropsychiatric difficulties and alterations in performance of neurobehavioural functions either by inhibition or facilitation [145]. The comparative analysis of studies relating cognitive and nervous system performance with EMF experience gets complicated due to different assessment tools employed and exposure situations and despite the bulk of scientific evidence, the results turn into conflicting and unconvincing outcomes. At present, the precise mechanism of EMF ill effects on neurons lacks sound understanding; however, some investigations have indicated the role of lipid peroxidation and free radical generation [2, 152]. To add, the nervous system is chiefly helpless to ROS insults because of its high metabolic rate, inadequate oxidant protection, and reduced cellular turnover [152].

2.7. Effects on Reproductive Function

2.8. Auditory and Ocular Effects

A recent study [179] concluded that higher ELF-EMF exposure at 50 Hz, 10.182 kV/m coupled to 4.45 pT MF may give rise to adverse auditory effects especially to the organ of Corti and outer hair cells as a result of decreased distortion product auto acoustic emission amplitudes in higher frequency region localized in basal turn of cochlea in rabbits which have also resemblance with human’s frequency spectra. As regards RFR-EMF, MP use has been associated with tinnitus and acoustic neuroma [38, 41]. 


However, regular long-term MP use has been linked to increased relative risk of acoustic schwannoma [39]. Despite the interests in EMF effects due to MP, there is lack of solid evidence regarding the ill effects on auditory system and, hence, we are far from any conclusion and not able to develop safe and sound communication devices necessary for safeguarding one of the senses [11].


…the database is yet deficient to decide regarding ocular defects including cataracts in human subjects exposed for extended durations.

2.9. Effects on Sleep Parameters

Sleep insufficiency was observed to be more common in the occupational group of electronic equipment repairers exposed to ELF-EMF though not statistically significant when compared to controls [89]. Earlier studies have also documented diminished sleep and sleep efficiency with 60 Hz MF experience [188]. <<SNIP>>

3. Mechanisms of Action

3.1. Thermal and Nonthermal Interactions


body tissues or organs like lens of eye and testes with less vasculature or deficient in water content are the most vulnerable to even small rise in temperature. Usually, body parts with the smallest cross-section like hand, feet, fingers, and toes gain the maximum values of current densities and EFs [193].

3.2. Oxidative Stress

OS resulting from imbalance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants, leading to disruption of cell functions, has been proposed as one of the probable modes of EMF action [2, 5, 60, 71, 196]. <<SNIP>>

3.3. Melatonin Diminution

Several human and animal studies conducted thus far have suggested decrease in melatonin after EMF exposure [21, 23, 24, 87].


Melatonin’s shielding actions counter to EMF ill effects are supposed to shoot from its direct free radical foraging and indirect antioxidant property of inhibiting free radical production at the power house of the cell and, hence, diminution of pineal melatonin secretion could be proposed as a possible mechanism of EMF interaction with living organisms.

3.4. Calcium Flux

3.5. Molecular Mechanisms

Similar to physiological stress response at the organ system level, there are also cellular stress responses at the cell level to impart protection to the cell from external and internal stressors. The cellular stress response is characterized by an elevation in stress protein concentration [204] in response to a stress causing damage to biomolecules like DNA and proteins [205]. <<SNIP>>

4. Research Needs

The limited quality of research works in bioelectromagnetics and methodological problems is an important concern [57, 155]. <<SNIP>>


Given the ubiquitous nature of EMFs, their widespread applications, and their capability to produce deleterious effects, conclusive investigations of the health risks are critical. With the published literature on EMF, it is still not sufficient enough to reach a concrete conclusion. But the possibility of negative consequences cannot be excluded. Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of EMFs to cause adverse health effects. However, the absence of any established biointeraction mechanism does not diminish the reliability of these studies as there are several credible mechanisms like OS that can account for the observed effects.

Therefore, need of the hour is to restrict the swelling numbers of scientific investigations and in place activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations especially long-term studies overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous findings with suitable replication studies and follow-up. There is a need for standardized research methodology along with the inclusion of appropriate exposure assessment technique which is crucial for identification of dose response relation if any and the elucidation of mechanism for biological interaction. If we do not work upon the demerits of previous findings, we may remain far from any concrete conclusion. At the same time, it is critical to analyse the EMF investigations giving more weight to the similarities and dissimilarities rather than giving more importance to the endpoints reached.

For the time being, since it is difficult to protect oneself from EMFs, the only practical way to check exposures is to distance oneself from the source. Together, the precautionary approach and ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle can also be applied to save us from substantial exposures and the possible ill effects if any. The objective is to minimize EMF exposures to the greatest degree possible without significant economic cost and disturbance.

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

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